Varieties of grape-vines cultivated in Moldova



Posted by Vasile

Moldovans ancestors growing the high-quality local varieties - Ochiul Boului, Tata Caprei, Pasareasca, Feteasca, Rara Neagra, Tamaioasa, Zghiharda, Plavai etc. Traditional repertoire was enriched by the variety coming from the Greeks, Romans, and later – from the Turks, Austrians and French.End of ХIХ century in France, Italy and America have been made, tested and implemented new varieties, then - and hybrids. Moldova currently are over a hundred varieties of grape-vine (Vitis vinifera L. Vitis labrusca). They differ by the color of pearls: from straw yellow and gold – to the open pink, pink and more intense - in bright red, purple and blue to purple. Varieties cultivated in Moldova have different periods of ripening, which extend harvest season from August to November. Classification according during maturation divide the varieties of grapes in early ,semi early, with medium ripening time, semi late and late. In Moldova are present all types nominees. First giving ripe are Muscatul Perla and Muscatul Chihlimbariu, and end of season comes with grape harvesting Coarna Neagra, Muscat de Hamburg ,etc.

In aspect of destination varietys are divided into varieties of mass(Leana, Regina) and technical for industrial processing and obtaining of juice, concentrates and wines of different types (in Moldova - the grapes with yellow-green pearls and rose-open Feteasca Alba ,Shardonnay, Pink Traminer, Muscat, Aligote, Sauvignon, etc.. and ruby-violet color: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Saperavi etc.)

At the category of varietys for dual-purpose (for fresh consumption and industrial processing) are listed species Vitis labrusca (Concord, Lydia, Izabella) and Vitis vinifera (Schasla Blanc, Muscat Schasla etc..), also so-called species "stable growth” (Drujba, Moldova, Kismis Radios etc).

The high quality of pearls characterized elite species, usually these are most productive and most refined. For industrial processing and obtain noble wines, appreciated and prestigious whip in Moldova grown Muscat Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir, etc.

Specialists-producers and distributors of wines prefer to classify the varieties according to their specific flavor:

The muscat Muscat Blanc, Muscat Roz, Muscat de Hamburg, etc.
The rose Traminer Roz, Traminer Blanc, etc.
The blackberry. Sauvignon
The strawberry. LLydia, Concord, Izabella.
The violets. Aligote, Pinot Noir, Merlot.
The pine. Riesling de Rein.
The flowers. Rara Neagra, Semillon.

Structure variety

Technology Types: 
Table Grapes - (destined for fresh consumption) -6% 
Technicals red grapes - (cultured for further industrial processing) - 24% 
Technical white grapes - (cultured for further industrial processing) -70%

Table varieties with their fantastic taste which has established for fresh consumption, have a small share in the cultivation of grape-vine. Between technical varieties, intended for industrial processing in the biggest part is white grapes,by them are produced sparkling wines and primary materials for champagne. Red varieties, which are the high quality wine, have a share of 30 % in total production. Should be noted that planting new massive, recently incorporated, bringing the change in this situation, increasing the share of red grape varieties.

Plantations structure depending on the type variety is presented in the following:

Types of varieties: 
European varieties - 70% 
Caucasian varieties- 14% 
Aborigine varieties - 16%

For production of different types of wines in Moldova are used mainly these varieties:

Primary material for distillation: Aligote, Rcatiteli, Riesling Rein, Traminer Rose, Semillon, Plavai, Muscat Ottonel,Feteasca Alba, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Malbec
Varietal table wines: Muscat Blanc, Chardonnay, Sauvignon, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Riesling de Rhin, Traminer Roz, Muscat Ottonel, Aligote, Feteasca Alba, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Malbec
Table Wines: Rara Neagra, Merlot, Semillon, Aligote, Rcatiteli, Feteasca Regala, Riesling Rein, Silvaner, Saperavi, Saperavi Nordic, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Traminer group, Merlot, Pinot group
Natural and classic sparkling wines : Chardonnay, Sauvignon, Aligote, Muscat Blanc, Riesling Rein, Feteasca Alba, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Pinot Blanc

Moldova's wine range future is inseparable from varieties of high quality, widely known in worldwide and appreciated for the international market, as are Chardonnay, Sauvignon, Muscat Blanc, Cabernet -Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Traminer Rose, Riesling Rein, Aligote. Aborigine varieties that have greater market potential are:Feteasca Alba, Feteasca Regala and Rara Neagra. Predictions on the viticulture development According with the Programme of development viticulture and winemaking for the years 2002 - 2020, average harvest of grapes, and taking into account new plantations will be 8 t per hectare, and the arrays productivity existing following will not fall below 4-5 t per hectare. It is foreseen that 2015 - to 6.95 per hectare. During the same period will be cleared 65,000 acres of old vineyards and planted 60,000 hectares of young vines. Corresponding, the total harvest will increase the technical varieties, reaching the figure of 460,000 tons in 2020. Instantaneous willincrease the quality of picked grapes, so - and the wines produced. Necessary to mention that the new plantations will be composed mainly of red grape varieties Cabernet- Sauvignon and Merlot.

This is a list of the most spread species of grapes in Moldova:

White grapes 70%
Aligote 23%
Rkatsiteli 15%
Sauvignon Blanc 9%
Feteasca Alba 7%
Chardonnay 4%
Riesling 3%
Traminer 2%
Other(including Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris and Muscat) 7%
Red grapes 30%
Merlot 9%
Cabernet Sauvignon 8%
Pinot Noir 7%
Other (including Rara Neagra, Saperavi and Malbec) 6%